• Accordéon

    (Ger. Handharmonika, also Ziehharmonika). A portable instrument of the free-reed species, invented at Vienna by Damian, in the year 1829. It consists of a small pair of hand-bellows, to one side of which is affixed a key-board, containing, according to the size of the instrument, from five to fifty keys. These keys open valves admitting the wind to metal reeds, the latter being so arranged that each key sounds two notes, the one in expanding, the other in compressing the bellows. The right hand is placed over the key-board, while the left works the bellows, on the lower side of which are usually to be found two keys which admit wind to other reeds furnishing a simple harmony—mostly the chords of the tonic and dominant. It will be seen that the capabilities of the instrument are extremely limited, as it can only be played in one key, and even in that one imperfectly; it is, in fact, but little more than a toy. It was originally an extension of the ‘mouth-harmonica’ — a toy constructed on a similar principle, in which the reeds were set in vibration by blowing through holes with the mouth, instead of by a key-board. This latter instrument is also known as the Æolina.

  • Guitare Portugaise

    (Sp.), on the basis of illustrations of the 13th-c. Cantigas de Santa María, Sachs concluded that this was a plucked instr. with ribs, waisted body, fretted neck, and probably 4 strings. His conclusions are still accepted. Kastner, in his Danse des morts, quotes a 1349 source listing a joueur de la guiterre latine and a joueur de guiterne moresche then in the employ of the Duke of Normandy. Juan Ruiz, in the 14th c., also mentions both kinds of guitarra (169).

  • Kartāl

    (Sans., Beng.), wooden clappers of India, circular, with a short handle. One is held in each hand and they are clicked together. An instr. of fakirs and mendicants in some regions; in others it is provided with a cluster of pellet bells and serves as rhythm instr. Cf. chitike, chitikelu, kartāl, kartali, khat tālī (46, 173, 179).

  • Oud

    ÛD, OUD ou AOUD (arabe, = morceau de bois), instr. à cordes pincées. La légende attribue son invention à Lamek — sixième génération d’Adam — inspiré par la mort de son fils pendu à un arbre, dont le corps desséché résonnait, selon le Kitab al-aghânî, comme un instr. de musique. En fait, on pense que le  » `ûd  » a pu naître en Basse-Mésopotamie, dans le royaume de Hîra, situé à la confluence des civilisations arabe (encore embryonnaire) et perse

  • Rubab

    (Pers., Turk.), short lute of ancient Persia, with piriform body, membrane belly, and 3-5 strings tuned in 4ths, attached to a sickle-shaped pegbox. Adopted by other Islamic countries from Egypt to Afghanistan and still a pop. instr. (75 II, 89 Farmer).

  • Tabla

    [Arab. *tabl], drum of N. and C. India, with body of metal, wood, or clay, in shape of 2 truncated cones joined at their widest part. The single head is laced with thongs forming a zigzag pattern and tightened with cylindrical wooden dowels. The head is permanently treated with black tuning paste; this accounts for its being compared to the right head of the *mridanga. It is generally played together with the bāmyā (138, 179).

  • Tin whistle

    Nom anglais pour un type de flûte fendue avec six trous pour les doigts à l’avant, faite de métal (par exemple, de l’étain) ou de plastique. On ne sait pas exactement quand ce produit de série bon marché a été mis en circulation, mais vers 1870, il était déjà un instrument populaire très populaire en Europe occidentale, joué par les garçons en particulier, mais aussi par des hommes adultes, principalement pour leur propre plaisir, mais aussi dans des orchestres. L’instrument est encore très populaire en Irlande, et ailleurs en Europe occidentale, il a été réintroduit sous son nom anglais par le mouvement folk dans les années 1970. Les noms néerlandais similaires sont, entre autres, « fluitje van een cent » et « blikken fluit ».

  • Trombone

    brass wind instr. with cylindrical bore, its characteristic feature being a telescopic slide, played with a cup mouthpiece slightly larger than that of a trumpet. The trombone started life as an improvement of the trumpet, perhaps at the court of Burgundy at the turn of the 14th/15th c. Its names « trombone » and « Posaune » bear witness to its ancestry, the latter name being derived from buisine. The trumpet of that time was S-shaped and sometimes had a telescopic mouthpipe. The larger version, the new trombone, had the mouthpipe fixed to the parallel tube by a cross-stay, and one whole section was made to slide by means of parallel outer tubing, while the rest was held still. From the late 15th c. on the trombone has remained virtually unchanged except for the shape of its bell—the older one being conical, whereas from the 18th c. on the bell has flared out—and the thickness of the metal, that of our modern instrs. being thinner. When the slide is pulled back (to the player) all the way, it is said to be in first position. In a B♭ trombone this will sound the fundamental B♭1 and its harmonics; if the slide is pushed out a few inches, into second position, its fundamental will be a semitone lower, or A1, and the harmonics will be those of A1, and so on. Its 3 lowest fundamentals, or pedal tones, are very hard to produce.

  • Vielle à roue

    (lat., organistrum; ancien fr., symphonie d’où ciphonie, chifonie, également armonie; angl., hurdy-gurdy; all., Drehleier; ital., lira tedesca; esp., zanfonía), instrument. à cordes dont la table d’harmonie est percée d’une fente pour le passage de la roue et dont le manche, dégagé du corps, est monté, avant le XVIIIe s., de 4 cordes, dont 2 bourdons placés de chaque côté du manche à l’octave. Les deux cordes mélodiques, accordées à l’unisson, passent dans une boîte fixée à la table; leur longueur est modifiée au moyen d’un clavier placé sur le bord gauche du manche. Elles reposent sur un chevalet central tandis que les bourdons sont supportés par des chevalets latéraux.

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